The roasted and ground seeds of the tropical evergreen coffee plant are used to make the beverage known as plain coffee. Along with water and tea, coffee is one of the three most consumed beverages worldwide. It is also one of the most lucrative international commodities.
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The seeds of the fruits of the Coffea plant are separated to create unroasted green coffee beans. The beans are roasted and then crushed into small particles, which are commonly soaked in hot water before being filtered out, yielding a cup of coffee. It is normally served hot, although cooled or iced coffee is also popular. Plain coffee can be made and served in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed canned coffee). Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, and cream are frequently used to conceal the bitter taste or to improve the flavor.
C. arabica and C. robusta are the two most widely produced coffee bean varieties. Coffee plants are grown in over 70 countries, particularly in the tropical areas of the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa. Brazil was the world’s biggest producer of coffee beans in 2018, accounting for 35% of the total. Green, unroasted coffee is traded as an agricultural product. Despite coffee sales exceeding billions of dollars globally, farmers who grow coffee beans are disproportionately poor. Critics of the coffee business have also objected to its bad influence on the environment, as well as the clearance of land for coffee cultivation and water consumption.